Aronia fruits originated in the eastern parts of America and came in Europe around 1900 through Germany and Russia. Recently it is cultivated in the Eastern and Northern European countries as well. Aronia melanocarpa is part of the Rosacea family, whose groves grow up to a height of 2-3 m and produce from May to June numerous bundles of up to 30 white flowers resulting in small fruits (6-13 mm, 0.5-2 g) which are blooming in August-September in bright red or dark purple.
Aronia is used for the production of fruit syrup, fruit juice (can even be mixed with apple, pear or currant juices), creams, fruit jellies, nutritional powder and tea. The Aronia fruit is also used in the production of liquor and butter as well as ingredients for fruit wines. The fundamental nutritional benefits of aronia in the prevention of degenerative diseases have directed the attention of scientists and consumers to these fruits and their constituents, their use being a tradition in European and North American folk medicine.
Nutrition Fibers. Fruits contain dietary fiber weighing between 5,62 g per 100 g of raw meal. It has been shown that fresh fruit has a relatively low pectin content of between 0.3-0.6%. The arsenic food fiber powder consists of: microcrystalline cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, polymers and condensed tannins. Fiber powders made from aronia fruit contain significant amounts of anthocyanin, as indicated by the dark purple color.The Aronia pulp is one of the best sources of dietary fiber, in addition, fruits act as cadmium absorbers.
Organic Acids. The total organic acid content is relatively low compared to other fruits being 1-1.5% of the raw weight. Within the freshly pressed juice produced under laboratory conditions, the total amount of acid was between 5-19 g / L, L-malic acid being the main component followed by citric acid.
- The content of reducing sugar in fresh berries was identified between the 16th- 18%.Glucose (41 g / L) and fructose were identified in the freshly pressed juice (38 g / L average).Similarly, the average amount of sorbitol (used in dietetic food instead of sugar and as low laxative) was measured as 80 g / L in freshly pressed juice and 56 g / L in pasteurized juice.
- The total fat content of the fruits (lipids, glyceride oil, linoleic acid, phospholipids, sterols) was measured as 0.14 g / 100 g.
- The protein content in the fruit was hardly clear, being up to 0.7 g / 100 g for. In the freshly pressed juice the amino acid content has asparagine as its main component.
- The mineral content (ash values) in fresh fruit was found to be between 440 mg / 100 g and 580 mg / 100 g. Due to the processing, the juice content of the juice varies between 300 and 640 mg / 100 ml. The aronia juice revealed relatively large amounts of potassium and zinc and a low content of heavy metals (Pb, Cd).
- Vitamin B1 (25-90 μg / 100 ml), B2 (25-110 μg / 100 ml), B6 (30-85 μg / 100 ml), C (5-100 mg / 100 ml), pantothenic acid (50-380 μg / 100 ml) and niacin (100-550 μg / 100 ml) were found in freshly pressed juice. Comparative amounts of β-carotene and β-kryptoxanthin have also been found.
- Aronia contains amygdalin: in fruits 20.1 mg / 100 g of raw mass, in juice 5.7 mg / 100 g and in the pulp itself 52.3 mg / 100 of the raw mass.
Phenolic Compounds.Perhaps the most important constituents present in the Aronia fruit, responsible for many of its medicinal properties, are phenolic compounds. Aronia fruits have very high content of procyanidin, anthocyanin and phenolic acids.
- The total content of procyanidins in the fruit was determined to be 5182 mg / 100 g of DW mass (degree of polymerization (DP) = 23), 3992 mg / 100 g DW (DP 14) and 664 Mg / 100 g of raw FW mass. In the pulp, the content of polymer procyanidins was determined to be 8192 mg / 100 g of DW (DP = 34) and 5611 mg / 100 g of DW, and in juice 1579 mg / 100 g DW (DP = 23) and 3652 mg / 100 g DW.
- The high content of anthocyanins is a major reason for using the Aronia fruit. This class of flavonoids is responsible for pigments that give the dark red, blue or purple fruit. Aronia melanocarpa fruits are some of the richest in anthocyanin sources, mainly containing glucoside-cyanidin. In fruit of Aronia, anthocyanins account for about 25% of total polyphenols. The total content of anthocyanins in the freshly pressed juice was determined successively as 880-1970 mg / L. The concentration of anthocyanins in the pulp and juice was determined at 1837 and 1173 mg / 100 g, in dry weight.
Phenolic Acid. The best source of phenolic acid among different fruits was identified in Aronia (96 mg / 100 g, raw mass), consistent with reports in which chlorogenic and neoclorogenic acids were identified as main representatives in fruits (302 respectively 291 Mg / 100 g, dry DW mass), pulp (204, respectively, 169 mg / 100 g, DW dry mass) and juice (416, respectively 393 mg / 100 g, DW dry mass). Acids represent 7.5% of total polyphenols in the Aronia fruit.
- The content of flavonoids and (-) - epicatechin in aronia is small compared to the other polyphenol constituents described above, representing only 1.3% of total phenols.
Health benefits of the Aronia fruits
The data on the absorption and metabolism of phenolic constituents contribute decisively to the description of the potential health benefits of the Aronia fruit.
Bio-physiological effects. The physiological and biological effects associated with the consumption of procyanidins and chlorogenic acids as well as anthocyanins together with the chemo preventive positive effects of phytochemicals in Aronia fruit are becoming increasingly appreciated and known. There is currently no literature on unwanted or toxic effects of the fruit, juice or Aronia extracts.
Antioxidant capacity. Fresh Aronia fruits have the highest antioxidant capacity of forest fruits and other high-performance fruits that have been researched so far under the ORAC (Oxygen Radicals of Absorption Capacity) method. This result is consistent with studies that report that Aronia juice has the highest antioxidant capacity among polyphenol-rich beverages, with values that are four times higher than cranberry juice, apple juice or red wine. The most important components that are responsible for the action of absorbing the radicals appear to be the main phenolic constituents. Based on the ORAC values of the individual phenolic components, the contribution of anthocyanins to the antioxidant activity was calculated at 33% for the Aronia fruit and about 42% for the commercial Aronia juice. The ability of phenolic components to capture bivalent transition metals significantly reduces the concentration of these cations. Anthocyanins in Aronia diminish lipid peroxidation and amplify the activity of enzymes involved in the antioxidant defense system. The red pigment fraction (of the Aronia fruit) of cyaniding derivatives is a strong annihilator of radicals and is able to prevent damage to the gastric mucosa. An antioxidant effect has been identified with the administration of a dietary supplement with Aronia juice limiting the oxidative damage of red cells.
Cancer Inhibitor. Numerous reports suggest anti-proliferative or protective effects of the Aronia fruit and / or extracts against the colon cancer.It has been shown that an anthocyanin-rich Aronia extract inhibits growth and stimulates the apoptosis of human colon cancer cells. The Aronia extract inhibited at a higher level than the extracts of grapes and blueberries, rich in anthocyanins. Other studies show that Aronia juice exposure inhibits the proliferation of colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and that a rich extract in anthocyanins inhibits the emergence of formations that constitute a preliminary marker for dysplasia and malignant transformation, diminishing the proliferation velocity of colonic epithelial cells and the concentration of fecal bile acids; The data is in line with recent studies that report that cyanidin 3-O-glucoside exerts chemo preventive actions.
Antimutagenic action.Phenolic compounds isolated from the Aronia fruit, especially anthocyanins, also exert an anti-mutagenic inhibitory action. Furthermore, the consumption of Aronia juice inhibits the endogenous generation of N-nitrosamines and the histopathological changes observed in the liver were prevented by co-treatment with Aronia juice.
Reduces toxicity. Anthocyanins from the scrub have diminished the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium in the liver and kidney; A hepatic protective effect of Aronia juice has also been observed after exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) since Aronia juice prevents increased CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation on the ability of anthocyanins and / or other phenolic constituents to annihilate free radicals.
Reduces cardiovascular risks. Aronia may positively influence several risk factors for cardiovascular disease: phenolic constituents contribute to the protection, restoration and functioning of endothelial cells. Other antithrombotic effects, such as vasoactive and vase protective properties in coronary arteries, have been observed. In addition, Aronia fruit juice prevented plasma-induced increase in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma lipids. In men with medium hypercholesterolemia, drinking the juice for six weeks caused a significant decrease in serum of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides while cholesterol HDL 2 was increased.
Moreover, there was a moderate but significant decrease in serum glucose, homocysteine and fibrinogen. Metabolic changes were also associated with a reduction in systolic and diastolic pressure at an average of 13 and 7 mm Hg, respectively. A similar hypotensive effect of flavonoid-rich extract of Aronia fruit has been observed in patients after myocardial infarction treated with statin inhibitors as well as in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Other effects studied include a significant reduction in cardiovascular risk markers after myocardial infarction, suggesting a possible daily use for the secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease.
Anthocyanins in Aronia Melanocarpa can be useful in preventing and controlling type 2 of diabetes and complications associated with diabetes. Administration of Aronia fruit juice revealed the attenuation of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The daily intake of Aronia juice over a 3-month period was effective in lowering empty stomach glucose in people with non-insulin dependent diabetes. Furthermore, Aronia juice has shown a beneficial effect on levels of HbA1c glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol and lipids.
- Recent studies also show that Aronia juice can be useful in the treatment of obesity disorders.
100% Natural Aronia juice
The fruits come from an environmentally clean agricultural area, are being harvested manually, stored carefully and then pressed in cold to preserve as much of the natural characteristics as possible. Ingredients: 100% pure Aronia Melanocarpa juice from cold pressed fresh fruit. No preservatives, no added sugar, no added water, without clarifiers. Product pasteurized at 79 ° C. It is recommended to consume 50 ml 2-3 times a day, possibly diluted with water or combined with other natural juices. After opening, keep cool.
100% Natural Aronia tea
The Aronia fruits, after cold pressing, were dried in a hot air jet and shredded at reduced speed to preserve as much of its natural features as possible. Preparation: infuse 1-2 teaspoons of tea (dried fruit pieces) into 200 ml of hot water for 10 minutes. Consume hot or cold. After infusion, all the fruit fragments can be chewed with a tawny taste with almonds, thus significantly increasing the daily antioxidant supplement needed by the human body. In addition, because the Aronia fruit fragments have an increased content of food fibers, cellulose and hemicellulose once indulgence are very effective in regulating the gastrointestinal tract. The recommended daily dose of tea is 1-2 cups of 200 ml. Aronia tea should not replace a varied, balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. Keep cool and dry in the original closed container.
100% Natural Aronia Powder
The fruits, after cold pressing, were dried in a hot air jet, crushed and then grounded very fine (Aronia powder) at reduced speed to preserve as much of the natural characteristics as possible. The solid parts (peel, pulp and stalk) resulting from the Aronia fruit retain much of the health-giving polyphenols (procyanidins, anthocyanins and phenolic acids) and also contain numerous dietary fiber that have the ability to regulate cholesterol and gastric juice and play a role In the fight against diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, heart disease, colon cancer and colorectal cancer. How to use: put 1-2 teaspoons of Aronia powder in a 200 ml (preferably transparent) mug, add 1-2 teaspoons of milk or water heated to a maximum of 70 ° C and mix slowly for 2-3 minutes until the composition gains in volume (can be sweetened with half a teaspoon of honey); Continue stirring while filling the cup with slow milk or hot water. A strong violet color, sour and astringent taste and almond flavor are obtained. For maximum effects, it is recommended to continuously mix the contents before consuming it completely to maximize health control effects. Aronia powder can be used in combination with yoghurts, creams, ice creams, sherbets as well as cocoa instead of creams, cakes and desserts.